The American Optometric Association releases new guideline for pediatric eye care, calling for annual eye exams and providing concussion recommendations, among others.
ST. LOUIS - The American Optometric Association (AOA) recently released the newly revised Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline: Comprehensive Pediatric Eye and Vision Examination for pediatric eye health. The guideline, based on a three-year systematic review of the latest research, put comprehensive eye exams on par with other annual health examinations for children. Evidence now supports that children ages 6 to 18 years should receive a comprehensive eye exam before entering the first grade and annually thereafter. The comprehensive eye exam guideline has shifted from a two-year to a one-year frequency recommendation due to research showing the increased prevalence of eye and vision disorders and further understanding of the significant impact eye health has on a child's development.
The AOA is urging all parents and caregivers to begin taking their children to a doctor of optometry for regular, in-person comprehensive eye exams at a young age to establish a lifelong prioritization of eye health. The AOA is concerned because many children only receive vision screenings offered at a school or pediatrician's office, which fail to catch a wide variety of conditions that only a comprehensive eye exam can detect.
Good vision and overall eye health are essential in childhood development. Poor vision can affect a child's ability to participate in class and cause them to fall behind in their education. It can also impact their performance in sports, among other activities. The AOA is educating parents about how comprehensive eye exams go beyond vision screenings commonly offered at school or a pediatrician's office, which fail to catch a wide variety of conditions. A doctor of optometry can diagnose and treat any eye or vision conditions that may affect overall health, such as glaucoma, brain damage and head trauma.
"Undiagnosed and uncorrected eye and vision problems are a significant public health concern, which is why the AOA developed the evidence-based guideline for comprehensive pediatric eye and vision examinations," said Christopher Quinn, O.D., president of the AOA. "Children are entitled to the best care, and this guideline provides the compass for comprehensive and improved care for children based on the collective body of available evidence."
With summer activities in full swing and the start of school around the corner, the AOA has compiled recommendations in line with the new guideline to ensure eye health and safety is a priority:
- Preschool-age children should receive at least one in-person comprehensive eye and vision examination between the ages of 3 and 5 to prevent and/or diagnose and treat any eye or vision conditions that may affect visual development. One in five preschoolers has a vision problem.
- School-age children should now receive an in-person comprehensive eye and vision examination annually to diagnose, treat and manage any eye or vision problems. Previous recommendations were for eye exams to occur once every two years.
- Routine vision screenings offered at a school or pediatrician's office are not enough. In their initial stages, many vision and eye health conditions lack obvious signs or symptoms. Routine vision screenings cannot be relied on to catch most vision problems. Even if problems are detected, 61% of those children with a problem will not receive appropriate follow-up. Evidence demonstrates that the best course of action is following an annual eye exam schedule.
- Children who experience a concussion should visit their doctor of optometry for a comprehensive eye exam in addition to an appointment with their health care provider. Studies have shown that there is a high prevalence of vision problems in children who experience a concussion, so comprehensive eye exams are essential in protecting their vision as well as determining if more care is needed.
- Ocular trauma such as corneal scars, hemorrhages and folds are often linked to child abuse and neglect. Comprehensive eye exams play an important role in identifying signs of abuse when external signs may be limited or nonexistent.
- Some additional updates to the guideline include information on myopia, eye injury/protection, the benefit outdoor exposure has on vision and the importance of ultraviolet radiation and blue light protection.
The AOA is committed to ensuring health and safety for all children. The new guideline is based on a three-year systematic review in which the AOA gleaned insights from doctors of optometry and other stakeholders in the pediatric health field, such as pediatricians, social workers and parents. The committee meticulously reviewed 1,475 abstracts and 353 articles, following the AOA's 14-step evidence-based process that rates the quality of the evidence and strength of clinical recommendations. The guideline provides best practices on eye exam procedures and management of conditions and diseases, among other clinical topics. The guideline also meets the revised standards of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine). The pediatric eye care guideline was last reviewed and updated in 2002.
To identify doctors of optometry who focus on pediatrics or to find additional information on pediatric eye care, please visit aoa.org.
About the American Optometric Association (AOA):
The American Optometric Association, founded in 1898, is the leading authority on quality care and an advocate for our nation's health, representing more than 48,000 doctors of optometry (O.D.), optometric professionals and optometry students. Doctors of optometry take a leading role in patient care with respect to eye and vision care, as well as general health and well-being. As primary health care providers, doctors of optometry have extensive, ongoing training to examine, diagnose, treat and manage ocular disorders, diseases and injuries and systemic diseases that manifest in the eye. Doctors of optometry provide more than two-thirds of primary eye care in the U.S. For more information on eye health and vision topics, and to find a doctor of optometry near you, visit aoa.org.