Most often photopsia when encountered in clinical practice is related to vitreous changes that cause entoptic phenomenon. Unfortunately, the symptoms associated with flashing lights might represent something completely unrelated to vitreoretinal phenomena, namely a vascular, neoplastic, or neurologic etiology. Most often these conditions carry significant morbidity, even mortality concerns and can't be missed. This course will examine the differences in presentation and cite several case examples of photopsia not related to vitreoretinal conditions such as giant cell arteritis, artery occlusion, patent foramen ovale, neoplastic lesions, Purtscher-like retinopathy, and cerebral aneurysm.   Entoptic phenomenon are visual perceptions produced or influenced by various structures within the eye. A detailed history and dilated funduscopic examination are essential in evaluating and completing a comprehensive ocular evaluation.

Course Code:



Joseph Shovlin, O.D.



AOA Expiration Date:


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