Lutein & Zeaxanthin


  1. (2001). "A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age- related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no. 8." Arch Ophthalmol 119(10): 1417-36.
  2. Seddon, J. M., et al. (1994). "Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Eye Disease Case Control Study Group.” JAMA 272(18): 1413-20.
  3. Christen, W.G., S. Liu, et al . (2008). “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and risk of cataract in women: a prospective study.” Archives of Ophthalmology 126(1): 102-9.
  4. Stahl and Sies (2005) “Bioactivity and protective effects of natural carotenoids.” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1740:101-107.
  5. Richer, S., W. Stiles, et al. (2004). "Double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial)." Optometry 75(4): 216-30.
  6. Stringham, J. M. and B. Hammond (2008). "Macular Pigment and Visual Performance Under Glare Conditions." Optometry & Vision Science 85(2): 82-88.
  7. Chew, E. (2007). “Age-related eye disease study 2 protocol.” National Eye Institute Protocol 07-EI-0025.
  8. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20 (2007). Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page,
  9. (1993). "Antioxidant status and neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group." Arch Ophthalmol 111(1): 104-9.
  10. Lyle, B. J., J. A. Mares-Perlman, et al. (1999). "Antioxidant intake and risk of incident age-related nuclear cataracts in the Beaver Dam Eye Study." Am J Epidemiol 149(9): 801-9.
  11. Kvansakul, J., M. Rodriguez-Carmona, et al. (2006). “Supplementation with the carotenoids lutein or zeaxanthin improves human visual performance.” Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 26(4): 362-71.
  12. Parisi, V., M. Tedeschi, et al. (2008). “Carotenoids and antioxidants in age-related maculopathy italian study: multifocal electroretinogram modifications after 1 year.” Ophthalmology 115(2): 324-333.

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